Gene Therapy Solutions

The Human Genome

The human genome is the entire genetic code that resides in every cell in your body (with the exception of red blood cells). The genome is divided into 23 chromosomes. During reproduction, two copies of the chromosomes (one from each parent) are passed onto the offspring. While most chromosomes are identical for males and females, the exceptions are the sex chromosomes (known as the X and Y chromosomes).

Each chromosome contains thousands of individual genes. These genes can be further divided into sequences called exons and introns, which are in turn made up of even shorter sequences called codons. And finally, the codons are made up of base pairs, combinations of four bases: adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine. Or A, C, T, and G for short.

The human genome is vast, containing an estimated 3.2 billion base pairs. To put that in perspective, if the genome was a book, it would be hundreds of thousands of pages long. That's enough room for a dozen copies of the entire Encyclopaedia Britannica, and all of it fits inside a microscopic cell.

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